Training Courses and Workshops

The SMTA training service offers training and skills development courses to meet the needs of radiocommunication professionals. The courses are designed by industry experts with long standing work experience. Each course is delivered by skilled trainers. The SMTA training catalog currently lists two separate courses:

course namelengthnext class date
Spectrum Monitoring, Measurements and Techniques4 daysMonday 9 September - Thursday 12 September 2024
secure your seat now, book your training in advance
NEW: Software Defined Radio and Signal Analysis4 daysTuesday 3 September - Friday 6 September 2024

Be aware that it can be time consuming to obtain a visa to travel to our training location in the Netherlands

Click on the link for more detailed information about the specific course. Courses are available either online or in-person. SMTA also provides customised in-house training or workshops. For enquiries, please contact Spectrum Monitoring Technology Advisors in the Netherlands: +31356917788 or +31636226038. E-mail: References provided upon request.

Why choose SMTA for your training needs?

Course: Spectrum Monitoring, Measurements and Techniques

Spectrum Monitoring is, besides Spectrum Planning and Licensing, one of the key elements in spectrum management process. Monitoring is not only solving interference problems but also tasked with for instance:
  • Checking license parameters, e.g. field strength and bandwidth (remote inspection)
  • Comparing predicted and measured values
  • Identifying illegal use
  • Supporting preparation for WRC
  • Quick overview of the spectrum
  • Refarming
  • Detecting White Spaces, etc
Frequency Planning and Licensing provide the theoretical (calculated) occupancy. Monitoring provides the real (automatically or manual measured) occupancy. The smaller the difference between theoretical and real occupancy, the better the quality of the overall spectrum management process.

The Spectrum Monitoring Technology Advisors (SMTA) spectrum monitoring learning course is based on the latest ITU-R and CEPT Recommendations, Reports and Handbooks and gives an introduction into the most common spectrum monitoring measurement techniques. All teachers are experienced monitoring engineers, have also fulfilled jobs in the management of the monitoring department and participated in ITU-R Study group 1 as well as in CEPT working groups and project teams.

Currently SMTA offers two course delivery models depending on your specific requirements:

Target Audience:Individual professionals
Contents:See modules description below
Date:Monday 9 September - Thursday 12 September 2024
Course length:4 days
Location:Bussum city, the Netherlands (15 mins south of Amsterdam)
Fee:€1,920 (includes USB-stick with all modules in PDF format, daily Dutch-style lunch)
Registration:online application form

For more information, please contact Spectrum Monitoring Technology Advisors B.V. in the Netherlands. Training hotline: (+31)636-226-038. E-mail: References provided upon request.

Training Module T1: Introduction to Spectrum Monitoring

This module gives information on the telecom environment on a global (ITU), regional (CEPT, APT etc.) and national level, their structure and study groups, working groups and project teams. Where to find and how to use the different recommendations, reports, etc.
  • Radio Telecom Environment
    • Global, Regional, National
  • International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
  • ITU-R WRC's
  • ITU-R Study Groups
  • ITU-R Spectrum Monitoring Handbook(s)
  • ITU-R SG1 WP1C Mailing lists - FTP server
  • CEPT
  • Structure of ECC
  • CEPT ECC WGFM PT 22 (FM22 - European Monitoring Group)
  • ETSI
  • Actual items in international forums, e.g. Digital Dividend 1-2-3, International Space Monitoring, Cognitive radio, 5G, IoT, WiFi (offload 3G/4G), Mobile Data Collection
  • Outcome WRC 2015, WRC 2019, agenda WRC 2023

Training Module T2: Manual Monitoring

There is still a need to develop skills in manual monitoring, identify stations and log the transmitter parameters using the ITU classification of emissions. Information from manual and automatic monitoring can be combined (see plot below) to increase the quality of the output.
  • Radio Regulations
  • Manual monitoring
  • Identification (+software)
  • RR. APP1, Classification of emission
  • Results of Manual Monitoring
    • Using ITU-R SM.1393 Common formats for the exchange of information between monitoring stations
    • Using ECC(02)03 Exchange of radio monitoring information using electronic means in common monitoring campaigns
  • Countries contributing to the IMS
  • Manual Monitoring combined with Automatic Monitoring
  • Some practical examples
  • IARU database

Training Module T3: Monitoring in the Spectrum Management Process

Frequency Planning, Frequency Licensing and Spectrum Monitoring are key elements in the spectrum management process. The role of Monitoring is to support this process in order to realise a useable and interference free spectrum.
  • Key elements in Spectrum Management
  • Spectrum Management definitions
  • Monitoring Stations
  • Monitoring Department
  • Relations in Spectrum Management
  • Monitoring of the Spectrum
  • Monitoring tasks and techniques
  • Changing role of Regulatory Authority
  • Monitoring definitions
  • Discussion with customers
  • Responsibilities
  • Spectrum management cycle
  • ECC Report 130
  • Need for Effective Monitoring
  • Why Spectrum managers should listen to Monitoring

Training Module T4: Inspection of Stations from a Monitoring Perspective

Approximately 90% of all transmitter problems are caused by exceeding power or bandwidth limits. Monitoring can perform many (automatic) measurements to support inspection and enforcement. Automatic comparison of measured and predicted field strength is very easy in a lot of frequency bands.
  • Inspections in Europe (ECC Report 130)
  • Antenna Patterns
  • Different Types of Inspection
  • Conformity Check
  • Technical Parameters to be measured
  • Remote/on Site
  • Reasons or Triggers of Inspection
  • Pre-start Inspections
  • Pre-announced inspections
  • License exempt
  • Position in the Organisation
  • Remote Inspections using ITU-R SM.1809 / 1880
  • Comparison of measured with calculated values
  • Inspection using helicopter
  • Antenna Radiation Pattern with a Drone (2021)
  • Advantages of Measuring "in the air"

Training Module T5: Simple Frequency Channel Occupancy Measurements

This module gives general information on most types of Frequency Occupancy Measurements (FCO), not to be confused with Frequency Band Occupancy measurements. It contains information from ITU-R SM.1880, the old ITU-R SM.1536 and Handbooks 2002 and 2010. In many countries the measurement principles are more or less the same, however, the way of presenting results is often very different. This part ends with a lot of real-life examples showing how channel occupancy is presented in different countries.
  • General Considerations
  • Reasons for FCO
  • Important parameters:
    • Threshold level, dynamic, pre-defined
    • Occupancy
    • Measurement time
    • Observation time
    • Re-visit time (systematic measurements)
    • Length of expected transmissions
    • Duration of monitoring
    • Resolution of measurements
    • Occupied bandwidth of expected spectra
    • Size of filter
    • Accuracy
    • Erlang/Busy hour
  • Different FCO Methods
    • Continuous
      • Short, medium, long interval
      • Dependent and independent
    • Systematic
    • Monte Carlo (Random)
  • Dependent and Independent sampling
  • Site Considerations
  • Undesired signals
  • Limitations on Monitoring
  • ITU Handbook 4.10
  • Examples of displaying data

Training Module T6: Spectrum Control using Automatic FBO Measurements

Frequency Band Occupancy measurements can relatively easy and cheap be performed at monitoring stations. Let a receiver or spectrum analyzer run automatically according to a pre defined schedule, for instance every 24 hours a certain frequency band. By doing this a lot of information will be available on signal levels, occupancy etc. By repeating such measurements regularly it makes it possible to determine historical trends on spectrum usage. Developments: daily measurements 20 MHz - 6 GHz.
  • Spectrum Management
  • Spectrum Monitoring
  • Frequency Band Occupancy measurements (FBO)
    • Rec. ITU-R SM 1809 and ECC(05)01
    • File details
    • Process
    • Data collection
    • Results
  • Signal to Noise ratio
  • Relation filter and step size
  • Measuring schedule
  • FBO results, comparison with theory
  • FBO measuring configuration
  • Developments
  • Summary
  • References

Training Module T7: Frequency Channel Occupancy Measurements

Tests show that an increase in re-visiting time to a certain level hardly influences the accuracy. This means that by increasing the number of channels and with relatively simple equipment monitoring can provide frequency channel occupancy information on a lot of channels. The ITU-R SM.1809 frequency band occupancy measurements can be applied, not only displaying results of frequency band measurements, but also the channel occupancy can be retrieved automatically very easily. Plots show occupancy caused by different users on one channel.
  • Frequency channel and band measurements
  • Reasons for FCO
  • Measurement methods
    • Continuous
    • Systematic
    • Monte Carlo
  • Important parameters
  • Philosophy
  • Increase of re-visit time
  • Data collection using ITU SM.1809
  • Process measured field strength
  • Occupancy in:
    • color plot
    • table
    • HF bands
  • Occupancy verses availability
  • Demo presentation aeronautical bands, 4 years, 5 measurements including trends
  • Demo FCO/website

Training Module T8: Introduction to Satellites

To monitor signals from satellites we need special space monitoring stations. Though there are relatively few space monitoring stations in the world, SMTA offers also a spectrum monitoring training module on this subject which gives an introduction to satellites and the deployed frequency bands.
  • General/background/history
  • Different orbits
  • Elliptical, Circular and Polar Orbit
  • Satcom 2000 in Polar Orbit
  • Globalstar, Thuraya
  • Footprint, Global Beam and Multi Beam
  • Satellite Diversity Reception
  • Round Trip Time
  • Satellite frequency bands
  • Radio Navigation Satellite Service
    • Compass
    • GPS
    • QZss
    • GLONAS
    • Gallileo
    • IRNNS
  • Frequency Use RNSS
  • Iridium
  • Advantages of Satellite Communications
  • ITU-R Space Service Department
  • International Space Monitoring
  • Motivation for Space Radio Monitoring
  • Task of a Space Monitoring Station
  • Growing importance of Space Monitoring
  • Satellite Facilities over the World
  • Interferences caused by satellites
  • Spectrum of a satellite
  • Interferences caused by satellites
  • Interference geolocation TDOA + FDOA
  • Spacex 1200 satellites internet from space
  • Amazon satellites to provide internet
  • ITU International Satellite Symposium

Training Module T9: Modern or Smart Monitoring Process (R.A.A.P.)

Monitoring is more than performing measurements, manually or automatically. Smart Monitoring offers a modern tool for collecting facts. Therefore it is important that monitoring is accepted as a vital part in the process of Spectrum Management and could for instance be divided in 4 steps: 1) Recording of the spectrum, 2) Archiving the data, 3) Analysing the information, and 4) Presentation of the results (e.g. on a website).
  • Different approaches in Europe (ECC Report 130)
  • Various reasons to Monitor the Spectrum
  • Conformity with the rules
  • Conformity with the Policy
  • Observe-Analyse-Intervene (or not)
  • R.A.A.P. process
    • Recording
    • Archiving
    • Analysing
    • Presenting

Training Module T10: Smart and Delta Monitoring

Enhance the monitoring results by (automatically) comparing measured values with those of existing databases (e.g. from planning and licensing). Repeating measurements in the same frequency bands enables monitoring to determine historical trends in spectrum usage.
  • Modern monitoring in FM BC smart monitoring.
  • Modern monitoring in FM BC delta monitoring.
  • Modern monitoring Availability of information
  • Data collection
  • Special Analyses in FM BC
    • Comparison of measured and calculated field strength
    • Simulation of spectrum mask measurements
    • Historical Trends
    • Automatic detection of Illegal Stations
  • Delta Monitoring
  • Examples of Δtime and Δlocation, e.g.:
    • 1805-1880 MHz GSM1800 > LTE1800 refarming
    • 925-960 MHz GSM900 > UMTS900 > LTE900 refarming
    • 790-862 MHz allocation to the Mobile Service on a Primary basis in ITU Region 1

Training Module T11: Automatic Detection of Illegal (Broadcast) Stations

Exceeding of permitted power can easily be determined by automatic comparison of predicted and measured values. In addition to that, it is possible to detect illegal stations for instance in the FMBC band. Spectrum Monitoring Technology Advisors developed software for the entire range from 87.5 to 108 MHz. The in Matlab written software is based on the difference in received level during the day.
  • History of illegal broadcast
  • Illegal use of MF, HF, VHF
  • Interferences caused by illegal BC
  • Products from illegal BC
  • Number of illegal stations in The Netherlands
  • Prosecution policy in The Netherlands
  • Trends in illegal (FMBC) use
  • Measured exceeding of predicted values
  • Measured illegal use from RM stations
  • Interference caused by different stations (time, level)
  • Automatic detection of illegal use
  • Examples of FM pirate stations
  • Illegal FM/DAB use in other countries
  • Demo

Training Module T12: Propagation of Radio Waves

Monitoring engineers should have some knowledge of propagation of radio waves. The SMTA training course contains a comprehensive propagation module. The level of this module can be tuned to the background knowledge of your monitoring staff.
  • Frequency/Wavelength
  • Radio waves and their primary mode of propagation
  • Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere
  • D, E and F layer
  • Different Types of Propagation
  • HF, Sky wave Propagation
  • Electrical and magnetic fields
  • Sunspot numbers
  • Propagation models
  • Polarisation
  • Line of sight (LOS)
  • Free Space Loss
  • Reflections Multipath
  • Doppler effect
  • Fresnel zone
  • Diffraction
  • Importance of Frequency Selection
  • Evaporation Ducts in the Atmosphere
  • Propagation Loss due to Atmospheric Absorption / Attenuation

Training Module T13: FM Broadcast Measurements

FM broadcasting is still very popular and it will remain for a number of years to come. The FMBC signal is rather complex. In this module a lot of techniques from previous modules are applied, such as smart and delta monitoring, comparing automatically measured and predicted field strength etc. Also frequency band occupancy measurements are used to collect data and present detailed information on FMBC. Furthermore, the baseband signal is studied and, for instance, the results from audio processing on the spectrum shape. This module contains a lot of examples of real-life measurements.
  • FM Modulation principle
  • FM Modulation index
  • Bessel function
  • Carlson's rule
  • FM baseband signal
  • Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis
  • FM stereo
  • Other subcarrier signals
    • SCA
    • RDS Radio Data System (EN50067)
    • RDS2 or XDS2
    • DARC
    • STIC
    • HSDS (Seiko)
    • FMextra
  • IBOC HD Radio
  • Audio filtering and RDS levels
  • Protection Ratio ITU-R BS-412
  • SM 1268 Spectrum Mask measurements
  • SM 1268 deviation measurements
  • Levels of audio processing
  • Examples of measurements
  • FMBC measurement equipment
  • Successor of FMBC in band II
  • Government Policy DAB+, FM Switch-Off
  • Low Power FMBC

Training Module T14: Interferences

Preventing and solving interferences is a very important, but not the only, monitoring task. This training module starts with some general information, such as for instance ITU definitions, harmonics, IM products followed by a lot of practical examples of interference problems in many countries retrieved from CEPT FM22 and ITU-R meetings and documents.
  • Unwanted Emissions in the Spurious domain
    • definitions
    • Harmonics
    • Intermodulation
    • Spurious
  • Intermodulation FM BC in aero bands
  • Passive Intermodulation (PIM)
  • Spurious from Radar on WLL 3.5 GHz
  • Interference on weather radar by RLAN 5 GHz
  • Check DFS of RLAN works correctly
  • Speed trap radar detectors
  • WIFI/RLAN (France, Netherlands Germany)
  • WIFI Analysers
  • Satellite interferences / GNSS jammers
  • Iridium Satellites into RAS band
  • GPS Interferences 1559-1610 MHz
  • GNSS jammers 1575,422 MHz
  • Power Line Communications (PLC)
  • Analogue/Digital TV
  • Wind turbines on radar
  • Interference from UMTS on DVB-T (ECC Report 138)
  • Interference from LTE on DVB-T
  • Interference from LTE on Cable TV / DVB-C
  • Plasma Screens on MF and HF
  • Portable LTE jammer 725 - 779 MHz
  • Interference from LTE on WLAN v.v.
  • DECT 6 Interference on UMTS 1920 - 1940 MHz
  • GNSS jammers
  • HDMI to uplink GSM
  • LED video walls
  • OTH radar
  • Interference handling using drones
  • Interference cases in the CEPT
  • Illegal use in CEPT 2014-2019
  • FM22 Questionnaire on LTE and DVB-T/T2
  • Interferences to EESS in 1400 - 1427 MHz
  • Roll out LTE 1474.5 MHz (SDL) causing interference to RNSS
  • Interference by Solar Power inverters
  • Interference caused by Remote Central locking System Mainly 1720-1725 MHz
  • 5G interference to aero altimeter radar 4000-4200 MHz
  • Animal trackers

Training Module T15: WiFi, RLANs, etc. in 700 MHz and 2.4/5.8/60 GHz

The band 2400 - 2483.5 MHz is allocated to ISM but also a lot of other users are active in this frequency band. WiFi RLANs cause rather high occupancy in this frequency band. In most countries these RLANs are license exempt. RLANs however also have to fulfill certain conditions. In a lot of countries there are serious problems with these systems. The 5 GHz RLANs are becoming more and more popular because the 5 GHz band is not as heavily occupied as the 2.4 GHz band. A lot of new IEEE 802.11 standards for frequency ranges up to 60 GHz were developed recently. Manufactures are working on new RLANs integrated with 3G and 4G. About 75% of all mobile data traffic is running via WiFi. It is considered as a possible "offload" from 3G/4G traffic. That's why we see a fast development in new WiFi systems and used frequency ranges. There are also developments in systems like Bluetooth, Zigbee etc.
  • ITU RR Allocation of 2.4 GHz
  • ITU RR ISM frequency bands
  • Wireless Networks
  • Use of Frequency Band ISM 2400 – 2483.5 MHz
  • RLAN Technologies below 10 GHz, Overview . 802.--
  • IEEE 802.11 WIFI/RLAN Standards
  • 2.4 GHz RLAN Channels
  • RLAN IEEE 802.11b and 11g Standard Overlap in Channels
  • WIFI/RLAN 2.4 GHz measurements
  • IEEE 802.11a 5GHz WLAN
  • Coverage Comparison 802.11.a and 802.11b
  • WIFI/RLAN 2.4 GHz versus 5 GHz
  • IEEE 802.11n 5GHz WLAN
  • IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n data rates, Mbps
  • WIFI/RLAN 2.4 GHz Occupancy (UK)
  • Illegal High power WiFi
  • Increase of Operating Distance Using Directional Antenna
  • Maximum power of RLANs in 5GHz
  • Bluetooth IEEE 802.15.1
  • New Functions in Bluetooth V. 5
  • Bluetooth and Competing Techniques
  • 2.4 GHz Zigbee IEEE 802.15.4
  • 2.4 GHz Zigbee, WiFi and Bluetooth
  • Use of ISM Frequency Band 2400 – 2483.5 MHz by BT, Zigbee and WIFI
  • Bluetooth-WIFI-WIMAX-3GPP
  • Comparison of Mobile Internet acces methods
  • ECC WIFI Questionnaire 2.4 GHz interferences
  • WIFI Bands around the World
  • New Wi-Fi bands in USA
  • IEEE 802.11 ac in 5GHz "Gigabit WIFI"
  • IEEE 802.11 af "White FI"
  • IEEE 802.11 ad 4 Channels in 60 GHz
  • IEEE 802.11 ay in 60GHz
  • 60GHz Spectrum Allocation Worldwide
  • IEEE 802.11 aj in 45 GHz (China)
  • IEEE 802.11 AH Halow < 1 GHz
  • IEEE 802.11 BE EHT WiFi 7?
  • The Evolution of WIFI
  • Coverage in WIFI 802.11b - 802.11ax
  • City beacons
  • WIFI Bands around the World
  • Identifying Wi-Fi Device Technology
  • WiFi5 versus WiFi 6
  • MU-MIMO and OFDMA in WiFi6
  • Netstumbler-inSSID
  • Sniffers-Analysers
  • Hotspot / Community Hotspot
  • WIFI increased speed 1997-2013
  • WIFI Tracking
  • Download speed WiFi versus 4G
  • WIFI during Corona in US
  • WIFI Mesh Network

Training Module T16: Introduction to RADAR

WRC 03 allocated some additional services to the Radiolocation frequency bands. This sharing results in interference problems. This training module gives information on Radar principles, Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) and activities in ITU-R Study groups and a lot of Radar spectra which makes it easier for monitoring staff to recognise and analyse these Radar transmissions.
  • ITU RR definitions
  • ITU allocation to Radiolocation
  • Frequency Sharing in Radiolocation Bands
  • Radar principle
  • Rotating antenna pattern
  • Plan Position Indicator (PPI)
  • Determination of direction
  • Duplexer
  • Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF)
  • Pulse shape
  • Unambiguous Range
  • Different Types/Frequencies
  • Air Traffic Control Radar
  • Primary and Secondary Surveillance Radar
  • Weather Radar Change in elevation
  • Discriminating from other Radar
  • RLAN Interference on 5 GHz Radar
  • Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)
  • Examples of spectra of different types of Radar
  • Over The Horizon Radar

Training Module T17: Introduction to Statistical Analysis

Spectrum Monitoring is not only measuring but also converting the measurement results into information, understandable for our customers. As most measurements are performed automatically this can result in a huge amount of data and we have to apply statistics to keep it readable.
  • Data collection
  • Conversion
  • Terms and definitions
  • Example common used plots like:
    • bar plot
    • sum frequency polygon
    • histogram
    • Circle/pie diagram
    • frequency polygon
    • box plot
  • Centre values
    • Mean
    • Modus
    • Median
  • Spread values
    • Range
    • Quartile
    • Variance
    • Standard deviation
  • Practical Applications

Training Module T18: Cellular Networks

This part of the SMTA training course deals with a combination of different digital communication systems. It gives a short overview on the developments from 0G to 5G, but is focused on 4G LTE, LTE Advanced and LTE-A-Pro (4.5G) including information on new antenna techniques, such as MIMO, beam forming, Carrier Agregation. There are also examples of refarming of the 900 and 1800 MHz bands (including real-life measurement examples). This module also contains info on LTE in unlicensed bands (LTE-U) and a lot of other developments. LTE and WiFi will probably integrate more and more.
  • Developments in Technologies (generations)0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, 3.5G, 4G
  • 3GPP(2)
  • 3GPP UMTS LTE Releases
  • Refarming 900/1800 MHz bands (e.g. GSM900 to UMTS900 or LTE900)
  • Data rate per system
  • Data rate versus mobility
  • Communications Standards
  • OFDM(A) DL
  • OFDM time and frequency multiplexing
  • Multipath in OFDM, guard interval
  • LTE down link spectrum
  • LTE coverage in different frequency ranges
  • LTE, Europe, Asia Pacific, North America, Freq. Bands
  • LTE-A (3GPP Rel. 10) Carrier Aggregation
  • Measurement examples of C.A.
  • Carrier Aggregation, Improvement in DL
  • Supplemented Downlink (SDL)
  • LTE-U License Assisted Access
  • Beamforming
  • LTE Categories
  • From SISO to MIMO
  • Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast by Region
  • T-Mobile 4G networks in Germany
  • HSPA and LTE Evolution
  • 2G-5G versus WLAN
  • Time line for of cellular generations
  • The Path to 5G
  • Evaluation of Mobile Communications Multiple Access Technologies
  • LTE-A-Pro Stepping Stone to 5G?
  • WiFi/LTE Integration
  • WiFi/LTE Capacity of Batteries

Training Module T19: Short Range Devices

Short Range Devices are small devices with a large impact. The types and number of Short Range devices is increasing. In CEPT the permanent SRD/ Maintenance Group is following the developments and is determining the technical requirements, which can be found back in ECC Report 70. In this module some general aspects of SRD&s are explained and it ends with results of measurements in the 863-870 MHz.
  • WRC-12 Agenda item 1.22
  • ECC Report 70 and its 13 Annexes
  • ITU-R WP1C SRD Measurements
  • ITU-R WP1C PDNR on SRD Sept. 2010
  • Relation between SRD monitoring and other monitoring operations
  • Mobile monitoring set up
  • Frequency Plan 863-870 MHz
  • Field strength versus distance (free space and att. 20dB)
  • Spectrum registration 863-870 MHz typical RFID populated area

Training Module T20: Digital Broadcasting Systems

In all frequency ranges new digital broadcasting systems gradually replace analogue systems. In the MW and HF frequency range DRM is not very successful so far. DAB is available in a number of countries and DTT is already on air in a lot of countries and in the near future all analogue systems will be replaced by DTT systems, such as DVB-T and DVB-T2. The big difference in protection ratio between analogue and DVB-T explains an advantage to the transition.
  • DRM, DRM+, DRM120
  • DRM transmissions HF and MF
  • DRM+ implementation FM band
  • DAB Modes
  • DAB principles, interferences
  • DAB OFDM characteristics
  • DAB Channel 12 Measurements
  • DAB/DAB+ around the world
  • DAB channel 12 measurements
  • DAB+, benefits
  • DAB+ SDR measurements
  • Sound Quality of DAB(+) versus FMBC
  • DMB in relation with DAB, DAB+
  • DMB around the world
  • DVB-T, DVB-T2, DVB-T lite
  • GE(06)
  • Analogue Switch-Off (ASO)
  • Digital television standards around the world
  • DVB-T GE06 Spectrum Mask
  • DVB-T versus DVB-T2
  • DVB-T transition period measurements
  • FMextra and IBOC HD Radio

Training Module T21: Digital Dividend 1, 2 and 3

After implementation of DVB-T (GE-06) and switch-off of Analogue TV there is frequency space available because of more efficient use of the spectrum by digital TV. These new space in frequency bands, as result of more efficient use, is indicated as Digital Dividend. WRC 2015 indicated also other TV frequency bands to be cleared.
  • EU Radio Spectrum Policy Group
  • Protection ratio analogue and digital television
  • Benefit Digital Dividend in Europe and USA
  • Propagation characteristics of the spectrum
  • LTE FDD and TDD
  • 2nd Digital Dividend (DD2)
  • Reduction in Spectrum Consumption
  • Why UHF?
  • White Spaces
  • Long term vision on UHF BC band, 3rd DD
  • PMSE studies
  • 4G networks
  • LTE use in DD band Germany
  • 4G network rollout in The Netherlands
  • CEPT Reports on DD
  • References

Training Module T22: New Wireless Systems, Techniques and Developments

This module contains an overview of all kind of recently developed new techniques and systems using the radio frequency spectrum, including the frequency used bands.
  • High Altitude Platforms (HAPs)
  • Google HAP Balloon above Puerto Rico
  • Site Audits via Remotely Piloted Aircraft
  • RF measurements with drones up to 110 GHz
  • Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
  • Frequency bands used by Automotive Radar
  • Example of 77 GHz Automotive Transmission
  • ITS and W RC2019
  • 3GPP eCall System Overview
  • GSM on board aircraft
  • WiFi Internet Connection on Board Aircraft (High Speed 4G Internet)
  • Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
  • Fake Cell Towers on Planes
  • Police Jamming Vehicle
  • 3GPP Rel.15 and Drones
  • Drone served by LTE Network
  • LIFI
  • Wireless Power Transfer (WPT)
  • SpaceX, Amazon, Oneweb satellites

Training Module T23: General Spectrum Monitoring Items

This presentation contains a lot of spectrum monitoring related items on different levels with a limited number of slides per item, varying from Ohm's Law to Dynamic Frequency Selection (in for instance the 5 GHz radar frequency band) and White Spaces. On request a lot of these items could be expanded to more complete training modules.
  • RR Definitions
  • ECC Report 138 definitions
  • Ohm's Law
  • Electrical Power
  • Large Figures
  • Construction of a Sinus
  • Voltage: Vpeak, Vpeak/peak, Vrms
  • Networks (configuration)
  • Equipment properties
    • Signal to Noise ratio
    • Detector of a spectrum analyser
    • Superheterodyne receiver/analyser
    • Filters
    • Selectivity
    • Dynamic range
  • Down Tilt of Antenna
  • Down Tilt Coverage
  • Frequency and time domain
  • Trunked Radio Systems
  • Diversity reception
  • Channel Bonding in WIFI bands
  • Ambient and Natural Noise
  • Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)
  • Bluetooth
  • Development in Communications
  • White Spaces
  • Special Events
  • Supplemented Downlink
  • DECT 1880 - 1900 MHz

Training Module T24: Experimental Processing

New communication systems appear and new measurement methods should be developed. It takes time for manufactures to come with new equipment and/or software. Monitoring organizations should be able to develop their own software for a lot of items. For instance detecting of White Spaces. What measuring method should be used and what parameters should be applied to detect these?
  • Reliability of new measurement methods
  • Occupancy independent from level
  • Occupancy verses availability
  • Dynamic threshold level
  • Detection of White spaces
  • Statistical distribution of gaps
  • Statistical distribution of transmission length
  • Classes of occupancy
  • Propagation factor
  • Sampling over time
  • Histogram (double)
  • Detailed analyses of occupancy data
  • Comparing different Antennas, same receiver
  • Comparing Different (time) Measurements
  • Data reduction
  • Occupancy 5G 778 - 788 MHz

Training Module T25: Cognitive Radio (CR) and TV White Spaces (TVWS)

To share freed TV bands with incumbent users, Cognitive Radio can be used to detect white spaces and make use of geolocation databases to determine whether other services can use these empty places in the spectrum. If channels are unused this does not mean that these channels are available.
  • Digital Dividend and White Spaces
  • Cognitive Radio
  • ITU Definition Cognitive Radio System (CRS)
  • White Space CEPT Report 24
  • White Space Technologies
  • White Space during Euro Songfestival 2011
  • PMSE Applications
  • Methods to get knowledge of Spectrum use
  • Incumbent radio service/system
  • COGEU Third Way Opportunity
  • COGEU Measurement Campaign in Munich
  • Spectrum Allocation after DSO in UK
  • White Space Definition
  • Hidden Node Problem
  • White-Fi IEEE 802.11af
  • USA TVWS Database
  • Spectrum Access in Future

Training Module T26: 5G and 5G related information

After 3G and 4G/LTE, LTE-A and LTE-PRO, the 3GPP 5th Generation in cellular systems (5G-NR) is being deployed. A number of 4G enhancements are used to increase the throughput from 5G. In several organizations 5G tests are running and the first commercial service has been launched in the US on October 1st, 2018.
  • 5G Technology Requirements
  • Increasing Data Speed in 5G
  • 5G Spectrum Considerations
  • Expected Timeline of Evolution to 5G
  • LTE, LTE-A, LTE-A Pro, 5G
  • Comparison 4G/LTE and 5G techniques
  • 5G Infrastructure to Support Ultra High Data Rate
  • Beamforming in 5G
  • 5G Waveforms
  • Mobile Communications Multiple Access Technology
  • Concept of OFDM
  • 5G CP-OFDM
  • 5G NR Radio Design
  • Global Status October 2017
  • Stand Alone (SA) and Non-Stand-Alone (NSA)
  • Spectrum Available for Broadband now and in the future (<6 GHz (Fr1))
  • Candidate 5G Frequency bands
  • 3GPP New Frequency Bands in Fr1 and Fr2
  • Meeting future Spectrum demand
  • 5G Test 3.7 GHz KSA June 2018
  • Latency/Delay
  • Bandwidth and Carrier Aggregation
  • Network Slicing
  • Dual Connectivity
  • Carrier Aggregation (CA) and Dual Connectivity (DC)
  • Battery life increases using C-DRX
  • Channel Bandwidth in 5G Fr1 and Fr2
  • Summary of 5G Applications
  • Footprint 4G versus 5G
  • RF Trends towards 5G
  • Switch-off 2G and 3G
  • UK O2 Launched 5G network on 17 October 2019
  • Dynamic Spectrum Sharing
  • Most Popular 5G Frequency bands, Capacity - Coverage
  • 5G Median and Maximum Download Speeds (Mbps) UK January 2020
  • Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS)
  • Requirements for 6G Wireless Technology
  • Comparing 5G and 6G Characteristics
  • 5G in 780 MHz in the Netherlands
  • 5G in 2100 MHz in Belgium (June 2020)
  • Summary 5G
  • Comparison 4G and 5G Spectra in The Netherlands
  • 6G developments

Training Module T27: The Internet of Things (IoT/M2M)

The term IoT encompasses everything connected to the internet, but it is increasingly being used to define objects that "talk" to each other. Simply, the Internet of Things is made up of devices -from simple sensors to smartphones and wearables- –connected together. By combining these connected devices with automated systems, it is possible to "gather information, analyse it and create an action" to help someone with a particular task, or learn from a process.
  • IoT and M2M
  • Basic IoT configuration
  • ISM / unlicensed frequency bands
  • Short Range (IoT) Wireless Technologies
  • Lorawan, Sigfox and other new systems
  • Wifi and IoT, HAYLOW
  • Integration WiFi in Cellular neworks incl. 5G
  • Narrow-Band IoT examples (R&S, Ericsson)
  • Narrow-Band IoT in LTE
  • NB-IoT or LTE Cat-NB1 or LTE- M2
  • Summary eMTC, NB-IoT, LTE-2
  • NB-IoT example measurements LTE guard band 920-960 MHz and 790-862 MHz in The Netherlands and Czech Republic
  • Overview of Technologies for LPWA IoT
  • IoT Data Rate versus Range
  • IoT Power consumption versus range
  • NB-IoT frequency ranges
  • Terahertz and beyond 100 GHz progress
  • IoT Technology Comparison

Training Module T28: Mobile Data Collection (MDC)

There are several methods to conduct measurements while driving a (monitoring) vehicle. Using Rec. ITU-R SM1708 is one of them. An other method, which is described in this module, is to equip several (20?) monitoring and other vehicles with equipment which is continuous measuring a certain frequency range, e.g. 20 MHz - 6 GHz. It starts automatically as soon as the vehicle starts to drive and ends when the vehicle stops. The results are automatically send to a central point (monitoring station) and will be processed automatically. It enables monitoring services to collect and display a lot of spectrum occupancy information with very limited human labor.
  • Spectrum Monitoring and Technology
  • Network Coverage Fixed Monitoring Network
  • Mobile Data collection (MDC) principles
  • Network Coverage MDC
  • Data Collection and File Size
  • Streetview
  • MDC vehicle Mounting
  • Data Presentation and Output Formats
  • Examples of measurements using MDC
  • MDC using other than monitoring vehicles

Training Module T29: Monitoring Stations

This module consists of photos, drawings etc. from (mobile) monitoring stations from many European and other countries.

Course: Software Defined Radio and Signal Analysis


SMTA also developed a 4 days training course Software Defined Radio and Signal Analysis, to be held in Bussum, the Netherlands. This is a high level technical training for radiocommunication and spectrum monitoring engineers with half a day hands-on practice. Every participant will receive an ADALM PLUTO SDR receiver, which will be his/her property.

The ADALM-PLUTO SDR Active Learning Module (PlutoSDR) introduces the fundamentals of software-defined radio (SDR), radio frequency (RF), and wireless communications to electrical engineering professionals.

Designed for all levels and backgrounds, students can use this self-contained, portable RF lab in an instructor-led or self-led setting. Participants will have opportunities to gain practical experience through hands-on practice.

Target Audience:Individual professionals
Contents:See modules description below
Date:Tuesday 3 September - Friday 6 September 2024
Course length:4 days
Location:Bussum city, the Netherlands (15 mins south of Amsterdam)
Fee:€1,985 (includes SDR receiver up to 6 GHz, USB-stick with SDR software and all modules in PDF format, daily Dutch-style lunch)
Registration:online application form

For more information, please contact Spectrum Monitoring Technology Advisors B.V. in the Netherlands. Training hotline: (+31)636-226-038. E-mail: References provided upon request.

Training Module S1: SDR Basics

SDR Basics is a one day beginners course aimed at monitoring and enforcement personnel. The training consists of a theoretical and a hands-on part.
  • SDR in a regulatory context
  • Definitions
  • AD and DA conversion
  • SDR architecture
  • SDR receiver measurements
The hands-on part is arranged around DragonOS and a Pluto SDR radio. The software for the practical part as well as the radio will be supplied during the training. A linux or windows laptop able to boot from a USB stick is required to run the DragonOS operating system and has to be provided by the participant. The minimum requirements for the laptop will be provided.
  • DragonOS operating system
  • Pluto firmware updates
  • GQRX, receiver basics
  • URH
  • GNU radio, demo of GSM capture and construction of receivers and transmitters
  • Alternative firmware

Training Module S2: Signal Analysis Basics

Signal analysis basics is a 1.5 day beginners course aimed at monitoring and enforcement personnel covering basic signal analysis principles and basic signal properties.
  • Introduction and modulation basics
  • Receiving systems
  • Basic parameter measurements
  • SIGINT database and Probability of intercept
  • Transients and drift
  • Pulsed signals
  • Swept signals
  • Noise and noise like signals
  • Masking and hiding
  • Natural phenomena and EMC related signals
  • Classification (demodulation and decoding)
  • Recording

Training Module S3: Field Strength Measurements

Fieldstrength measurements is an introductory training aimed at spectrum monitoring specialists and gives an overview of methods and associated topic related to EM fieldstrength measurements.
  • Reasons to measure field strength
  • Field definition
  • Near field and far field
  • Simple field strength measurement, basic principles and elements of a field strength measurement system including calibration
  • Measurements in the far field
  • Measurements in the near field
  • Specific measurement conditions
  • Relate field strength to e.i.r.p. en ERP
  • Commercial equipment

Training Module S4: Measurement Uncertainty

Measurement uncertainty is a short introduction to the use of uncertainty in HF measurements. After this training the participants are able to perform a calculation to establish the measurement uncertainty of their own measurement setup.
  • What is measurement uncertainty and why is it important
  • Uncertainty and probability in measurements
  • Sources of uncertainty and how to read an instrument specification
  • Uncertainty calculations
  • Reasonable uncertainty requirements, uncertainty testing, round robin tests
  • Use of ECC recommendation (17)01, UKAS M3003 and EA-4/16 G:2003